xAPI Appendix

Supported Verbs

The Cornerstone LRS allows the sending of predefined verbs as described in the table below. If a statement is sent with a verb that is not supported, the statement will be rejected.



abandoned The verb "Abandoned" indicates that the AU session was abnormally terminated by a learner's action (or due to a system failure). http://w3id.org/xapi/adl/verbs/abandoned
answered Indicates the actor replied to a question, where the object is generally an activity representing the question. The text of the answer will often be included in the response inside result. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered
asked Indicates an inquiry by an actor with the expectation of a response or answer to a question. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/asked
attempted Indicates the actor tried to access the object. An attempt statement without additional activities could be considered incomplete in some cases. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/attempted
attended Indicates the actor was present at a virtual or physical event or activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/attended
commented Indicates the actor provided digital or written annotations on or about an object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/commented
completed Indicates the actor finished or concluded the activity normally. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/completed
enabled Indicates that the actor turned on a particular part or feature of the system. It works with the verb disabled. http://id.tincanapi.com/verb/enabled
exited Indicates the actor intentionally departed from the activity or object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/exited
experienced Indicates the actor only encountered the object and is applicable in situations where a specific achievement or completion is not required. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/experienced
failed Indicates the actor did not successfully pass an activity to a level of predetermined satisfaction. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/failed
imported Indicates the actor introduced an object into a physical or virtual location. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/imported
initialized Indicates the activity provider has determined that the actor successfully started an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/initialized
interacted Indicates the actor engaged with a physical or virtual object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/interacted
launched Indicates the actor attempted to start an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/launched
liked Indicates that the actor marked the object as an item of special interest. The "like" verb is an alias of "favorite". The two verbs are semantically identical. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/like
mastered Indicates the highest level of comprehension or competence the actor performed in an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/mastered
opened Indicates that the actor has opened the object. For instance, the object could represent a ticket being tracked in an issue management system. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/open
passed Indicates the actor successfully passed an activity to a level of predetermined satisfaction. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/passed
paused To indicate an actor has ceased or suspended an activity temporarily. http://id.tincanapi.com/verb/paused
performed offline Indicates that the actor has performed the object offline for a period of time (episode). For instance, a learner performed task X, which is an offline task like reading a book, for 30 minutes. This is used to record the time spent on offline activities. http://id.tincanapi.com/verb/performed-offline
played Indicates that the actor spent some time enjoying the object. For example, if the object is a video this indicates that the subject watched all or part of the video. The "play" verb is a more specific form of the "consume" verb. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/play
preferred Indicates the selected choices, favored options or settings of an actor in relation to an object or activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/preferred
progressed Indicates a value of how much of an actor has advanced or moved through an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/progressed
read Indicates that the actor read the object. This is typically only applicable for objects representing printed or written content, such as a book, a message or a comment. The "read" verb is a more specific form of the "consume", "experience" and "play" verbs. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/read
registered Indicates the actor is officially enrolled or inducted in an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/registered
reported Indicates the actor announced the result of an experience or activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/reported
responded Indicates an actor reacted or replied to an object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/responded
resumed Indicates the application has determined that the actor continued or reopened a suspended attempt on an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/resumed
scored Indicates a numerical value related to an actor's performance on an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/scored
searched Indicates that the actor is or has searched for the object. If a target is specified, it indicates the context within which the search is or has been conducted. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/search
selected Indicates that the actor selects an object from a collection or set to use it in an activity. The collection would be the context parent element. http://id.tincanapi.com/verb/selected
shared Indicates the actor's intent to openly provide access to an object of common interest to other actors or groups. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/shared
started Indicates that the actor has started the object. For instance, when a person starts a project. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/start
suspended Indicates the status of a temporarily halted activity when an actor's intent is returning to the object or activity at a later time. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/suspended
terminated Indicates that the actor successfully ended an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/terminated
viewed Indicates that the actor has viewed the object http://id.tincanapi.com/verb/viewed
voided A special reserved verb used by a LRS or application to mark a statement as invalid. See the xAPI specification for details on Voided statements. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/voided
watched Indicates that the actor has watched the object. This verb is typically applicable only when the object represents dynamic, visible content such as a movie, a television show or a public performance. This verb is a more specific form of "experience", "play" and "consume". http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/watch