xAPI Appendix

Supported Verbs

The Cornerstone LRS allows the sending of predefined verbs as described in the table below. If a statement is sent with a verb that is not supported, the statement will be rejected.

Label

Description

ID/IRI

abandoned

The verb "Abandoned" indicates that the AU session was abnormally terminated by a learner's action (or due to a system failure). https://w3id.org/xapi/adl/verbs/abandoned
answered Indicates the actor replied to a question, where the object is generally an activity representing the question. The text of the answer will often be included in the response inside result. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered
asked Indicates an inquiry by an actor with the expectation of a response or answer to a question http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/asked
attempted Indicates the actor made an effort to access the object. An attempt statement without additional activities could be considered incomplete in some cases. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/attempted
attended Indicates the actor was present at a virtual or physical event or activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/attended
commented Indicates the actor provided digital or written annotations on or about an object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/commented
completed Indicates the actor finished or concluded the activity normally. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/completed
exited Indicates the actor intentionally departed from the activity or object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/exited
experienced Indicates the actor only encountered the object, and is applicable in situations where a specific achievement or completion is not required. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/experienced
failed Indicates the actor did not successfully pass an activity to a level of predetermined satisfaction. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/failed
imported Indicates the actor introduced an object into a physical or virtual location. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/imported
initialized Indicates the activity provider has determined that the actor successfully started an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/initialized
interacted Indicates the actor engaged with a physical or virtual object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/interacted

launched

Indicates the actor attempted to start an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/launched
liked Indicates that the actor marked the object as an item of special interest. The "like" verb is considered to be an alias of "favorite". The two verbs are semantically identical. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/like
mastered Indicates the highest level of comprehension or competence the actor performed in an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/mastered
paused To indicate an actor has ceased or suspended an activity temporarily. http://id.tincanapi.com/verb/paused
opened Indicates that the actor has opened the object. For instance, the object could represent a ticket being tracked in an issue management system. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/open
passed Indicates the actor successfully passed an activity to a level of predetermined satisfaction. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/passed
performed Indicates that the actor has performed the object offline for a period of time (episode). For instance, a learner performed task X, which is an offline task like reading a book, for 30 minutes. This is used to record the time spent on offline activities. http://id.tincanapi.com/verb/performed-offline
played Indicates that the actor spent some time enjoying the object. For example, if the object is a video this indicates that the subject watched all or part of the video. The "play" verb is a more specific form of the "consume" verb. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/play
preferred Indicates the selected choices, favored options or settings of an actor in relation to an object or activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/preferred
progressed Indicates a value of how much of an actor has advanced or moved through an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/progressed
read Indicates that the actor read the object. This is typically only applicable for objects representing printed or written content, such as a book, a message or a comment. The "read" verb is a more specific form of the "consume", "experience" and "play" verbs. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/read
registered Indicates the actor is officially enrolled or inducted in an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/registered
reported Indicates the actor announced the result of an experience or activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/reported
responded Indicates an actor reacted or replied to an object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/responded
resumed Indicates the application has determined that the actor continued or reopened a suspended attempt on an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/resumed
scored Indicates a numerical value related to an actor's performance on an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/scored
shared Indicates the actor's intent to openly provide access to an object of common interest to other actors or groups. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/shared
started Indicates that the actor has started the object. For instance, when a person starts a project. http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/start
suspended Indicates the status of a temporarily halted activity when an actor's intent is returning to the object or activity at a later time. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/suspended
terminated Indicates that the actor successfully ended an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/terminated
viewed Indicates that the actor has viewed the object. http://id.tincanapi.com/verb/viewed
voided A special reserved verb used by a LRS or application to mark a statement as invalid. See the xAPI specification for details on Voided statements. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/voided
watched Indicates that the actor has watched the object. This verb is typically applicable only when the object represents dynamic, visible content such as a movie, a television show or a public performance. This verb is a more specific form of the verbs "experience," "play," and "consume." http://activitystrea.ms/schema/1.0/watch